Viper

Snake (“Bei Lu”)[synonymous]虺 (“Book of Songs”), Reverse Nose (“Classic Interpretation”), Earth Viper (“Puji Fang”), Reverse Nose (“Outline”), Bi Fei (“Huzhou Prefecture Records”, Fang Shengban, Tu Jin, Gray Earth Plaque (“Outline of the Outline”), Flying on the Grass (Xue Dezhang’s “Systematic Zoology”), Seven-inch Son, Native Male Snake, Dog Cormorant, Rotten Belly(Biology Bulletin 3: 4, 1958), Tuqiuzi (“Northeast Animal Medicine”), Di flat snake (“Chinese Pharmaceutical Dictionary”).

  [Source]The whole viscera of the Viperidae viper.

  [Animal Form]The viper is 54-80 cm away.

  The head is triangular; the kiss ends are round, and the kiss scales are slightly wider than tall.

  The nasal scales are wide, with the trailing edge slanting outward.

  The forehead scales are large, and the length and width are slightly similar; the length of the frontal scales and the length of the replacement line between the two cranial scales are selected: the length of the cranial scales is similar to the sum of the frontal scales plus the forehead scale 1/2.

  The eye scales are longer than the frontal scales and smaller than the cranial scales.

  The nostrils are located between the two nasal scales, the anterior nasal scale is twice as large as the posterior nasal scale.

  There are 2 scales in front of the eyes, 2-3 scales behind the eyes, 1 scale under the eyes, and the front end is connected to the third upper lip scale.

  There are 7 upper lip scales, and the third one enters the eyes; 10 lower lip scales, and the first 4 are connected to the forehead scales.

  The front scales are large and juxtaposed side by side; the rear scales are small, separated from left and right, with 1 pair of small scales at an interval; there are about 5 pairs of small scales between the rear scales and the first ventral scale.

  Body scales are ridged, usually 23-21-17 lines.

  138-168 abdominal scales; single anal scales; 28-56 pairs of subscales.

  The back is dark brown, with one row of dark brown round spots on the body side, about 30 or so.

  The markings on both sides are often connected in the center of the back.

  The top of the head is gray-brown, from behind the eyes to the corners of the mouth and dark brown with broad stripes; the upper, lower lip and ventral surface of the head are pale yellow.

  The ventral surface is grayish white with black spots, sometimes all grayish black.

  The tail is short and charred.

  Living in the plains or suburban mountains, the disk is often disc-shaped or twisted into waves.

  Predatory rats, frogs, lizards, birds, insects, etc.

  Very toxic.

  Northern and central China were previously distributed.

  The animal’s skin (Viper skin), bone (Viper bone), gallbladder (Viper gallbladder), aunt (Viper snake fat), molting (Viper molting) are also used for medicinal purposes.

  [Collection]Captured in spring and summer.

  After catching, remove the internal organs by laparotomy and dry.

  [Pharmacological action]The crude snake venom has complex ingredients and complex effects.

  It is generally believed that viper venom is mainly blood circulation and nerve mixed poison.

  In addition to the local swelling and pain of the bite patients, due to neurotoxicity, chills often occur, eye paste, drooping eyelids, and neck traction. Of course, it is more important to cause breathing difficulties such as double inhalation, holding your breath, and nodding.Or fish mouth breathing.

  Respiratory paralysis is the primary cause of early death.

  Animal tests have also shown that viper venom has a significant neurotoxic effect.

  At the same time, viper venom has significant blood circulation poisoning, and artificial respiration alone cannot extend the survival time of animals.

  Clinical patients also often have severe toxic shock symptoms such as pale, sweating, accelerated heart rate, cold limbs, and decreased blood pressure.

  Although some people think that Agkistrodon halys venom is also mainly neurotoxic (respiratory palsy is the main symptom and the cause of death according to their observation), blood circulation poisoning is still considered to be the main one.

  It can release a large amount of vasoactive substances such as histamine, serotonin and bradykinin, destroy red blood cells, increase capillary permeability, cause a large loss of plasma and body fluids, and insufficient blood volume.

  More serious is the direct damage to the heart. The electrocardiogram of the bite patient has sinus arrhythmia, ectopic rhythm, and P wave becomes sharp.

  R波低电压、传导阻滞、S-T段下降、T波扁平或倒置等变化,联系到实验动物中毒死亡后的尸解情况-心肌出血、心肌纤维浊肿断裂,可以认为蝮蛇毒对心脏的毒性It is the initial cause of death caused by circulatory failure.

  Due to shock, hemolysis, and direct damage to various organs (such as kidneys), acidosis, acute renal failure, etc. can occur.

  Patients with severe bites often show soy-colored urine and urine protein, casts, and occult blood are positive.  Onset of infection is also a very important issue.

  Bamboo leaves are green, turtle snake venom is a mixed poison mainly blood circulation poison.

  Generally, local symptoms are heavier, and systemic symptoms are lighter. If rescue is timely and correct, the mortality rate will be reduced.

  [Processing]Viper Cream: Take the calcined viper of Viper and grind it into powder.

  [Sexual taste]sweet, warm and toxic.

  ① “Compendium of Materia Medica”: There is a small poison.

  ② “Outline”: Gan, Wen, poisonous.

  ③ “Ben Jing Feng Yuan”: Hot, toxic.

  [Function Indication-Viper’s Effect]Qufeng, attack poison.

  Treatment of leprosy, dysentery, skin irritation, dysentery, hemorrhoids.

  ① “Don’t record”: brewing wine to treat dysentery, sacks, abdominal pain, and nodule.

  ② “Medicinal theory”: treatment of five hemorrhoids, intestinal wind and diarrhea.

  ③ “Compendium of Outlines”: Zhifengbi.

  [Usage and Dosage]Oral: alcohol-soaked or storable ground powder.

  Topical application: dipping in oil, wine stains, or burn-in powder.

  [Selection]① Treatment of strong winds and evil winds, sores, stubborn skin, half-deadness, severe diseases of the skin, hands, feet, and internal organs: one viper.

  In the living device, throw it in a bucket of mellow wine and bury it in the horse drowning place. After the anniversary, the wine is still there, and the snake has digested it.

  However, one liter of serving has arrived, and it is no longer possible to take a physical exercise, take a puppet, or take medicine.

  There are also small poisons that cannot be taken.

  (“Compendium of Materia Medica”) ② Governance of white crickets: a large viper snake.

  Don’t make injuries, use wine stains, the big one fight, the small one five liters, bran fire temperature, order, find an inch of snake, with lunar pig cream and apply sores.

  (“Behind the elbow”) ③ The treatment of tetanus teeth is urgent, the mouth is not open, the mouth and face are skewed, and the limbs are loose and slow: a snake (removing head, tail, intestine, skin, bone, and vinegar) and five dragonsVinegar ), a star of the Southern Star (heavy thirds, artillery).

  On the end, vinegar and noodles, such as mung beans, are large.

  Three to five pills per serving, ginger wine, thin onion porridge, sweating.

  (“Pujifang” Tiannan Xing Wan) ④ Treatment of general swelling and poison, wound ulceration long-term embolism: Viper, go to its head and tail, remove the intestines by laparotomy, sand, immersed in oil, after 50 days, use micro-steam and apply.

  (“Surgery Treasure Book” Viper oil) ⑤ Parker back: a viper, a pound of sesame oil.

  First put the sesame oil flag into a porcelain pot, then put the viper into the soak, seal, bury it underground, remove it after one hundred days, dry it for half a day, mash it into a paste and apply it to the affected area.

  (“Jilin Chinese Herbal Medicine”) ⑥ Treatment of gastric ulcer attack: Viper, wine soaked for more than one year, drink one cup before each meal, three times a day, effective for 20 consecutive days.

  (“Animal and Plant Folk Medicine”) Treating Drowning: Viper is a penny and chicken tongue is fragrant.

  Put on the second flavor and send it down.

  Five points for each serving between seven and fifteen years of age; one for each service above fifteen.

  (“New Compendium of Materia Medica”)[Clinical Application]Treatment of Leprosy and Leprosy Response Trying viper wine to treat various types of leprosy has certain effects, especially for those who have combined drugs.

  According to the observation of 47 cases of treatment for 6 months, the general conditions such as spirit, weight and appetite have improved, skin reactions have subsided or improved, consciousness has recovered or improved, ulcers have reduced, and sexual function has improved; inflammatory cell infiltration on pathological changesReduced, bacteria tests disappeared or reduced.

  Another 10 patients with advanced neoplastic leprosy were treated with viper wine alone, and the results were significant in 3 cases, 5 cases were effective, and 2 cases were ineffective.

  In effective cases, skin nodules and softening of skin nodules began to disappear within 1-2 weeks after administration, and consciousness was restored. Cell infiltration and bacterial detection were also reduced.

  There is no uniform specification for the preparation of Viper Sprinkler, and the following production method has been tried: take a large (about 6-7 years) live Viper, put it in a 1000ml 60 ° sorghum shochu and drunk, and add ginseng 5 yuan,Cover tightly and place in a cool place. After soaking for 3 months, take wine orally, 1-2 times a day, 5-10 ml each time.

  Use a glass dish to draw the venom of viper viper, add it to 100 ml of 60 ° sorghum wine, and take the wine one month later, 2-3 times a day, 2-3 ml each time.

  Take one live viper, 5 ginseng, soak it in 2000ml of 12 ° rice wine, and take it after 3 months. Take it once a day, 5ml each time, and go to bed sweating.

  Take one live viper, put it into a drying box after killing, grind the powder for 12 hours, soak it in 500 ml of 60 ° sorghum shochu, and take the wine service 2-3 months later, each time5-10 ml; or take 5 g of powder and send it down once with 300 ml of rice wine.

  In addition, 5-10 grams of Agkistrodon powder was used in the clinic before taking the appropriate amount of yellow wine before going to bed (supplemented with liquid to detoxify during the medication). For 3-4 days, 15 cases of leprosy nodular reaction were treated, and the symptoms disappeared.12 cases, 2 cases improved, 1 case was invalid.